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A L L I S O N G RO S S , A N N E M A R I E H A M L I N , B I L LY M E RC K , C H R I S RU B I O, J O D I N A A S ,


Open Oregon Educational Resources

Technical Writing by Allison Gross, Annemarie Hamlin, Billy Merck, Chris Rubio, Jodi Naas, Megan Savage, and Michele DeSilva is
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise


Acknowledgements vii

External Link Disclaimer viii

CC BY (Attribution)
Introduction 1


1.1 Texting 7

1.2 E-mail 8

1.3 Netiquette 10

1.4 Memorandums 12

1.5 Letters 15


2.1 Types of audiences 21

2.2 Audience analysis 22

2.3 Adapting your writing to meet your audience’s needs 24


3.1 Some preliminaries 29

3.2 Types of proposals 30

3.3 Typical scenarios for the proposal 31

3.4 Common sections in proposals 32

3.5 Special assignment requirements 34

3.6 Proposals and audience 35

3.7 Revision checklist for proposals 36


4.1 Information formats 39

4.2 The information timeline 42

4.3 The research cycle 43

4.4 Research tools 44

4.5 Search strategies 49

4.6 Evaluate sources 55


5.1 Citations 61

5.2 Plagiarism 65


6.1 Functions and Contents of Progress Reports 69

6.2 Timing and Format of Progress Reports 70

6.3 Organizational Patterns or Sections for Progress Reports 71

6.4 Other Parts of Progress Reports 72

6.5 Revision Checklist for Progress Reports 73


7.1 Creating and using outlines 77

7.2 Developing the rough outline 79


8.1 Deciding which graphics to include 83

8.2 Other considerations: audience 84

8.3 Other considerations: placement and context 86

8.4 Samples 87

8.5 Guidelines for graphics: a final review 90


9.1 General Principles 95

9.2 Presentation of information 98

9.3 Typical Ethics Issues in Technical Writing 99

9.4 Ethics and documenting sources 102

9.5 Ethics, Plagiarism, and Reliable Sources 103

9.6 Professional ethics 104


10.1 Cover letter 107

10.2 Cover page 108

10.3 Abstract and executive summary 110

10.4 Table of contents 113

10.5 List of figures and tables 115

10.6 Introduction 117

10.7 Body of the report 119

10.8 Conclusions 124


11.1 On Style Conventions 133

11.2 Concept 1: Know Your Audience 135

11.3 Concept 2: Know your Purpose 141

11.4 Concept 3: Make Your Publication More Inviting Using Basic Principles of
Readability: CRAP


11.4 Concept 3: Make Your Publication More Inviting Using Basic Principles of
Readability: CRAP,

Rubric #2 Country/Community Selection (M2-A1)

15 points

Accomplished Proficient Needs Work

Identification of
country & why

3 points

*Identifies the country
or community
*Explains why the

*Identifies the country
or community
explanation of choice

*Identifies the country
or community
*No explanation of

Identifies health issues
in chosen

2 points

*Identifies several
health issues

*Does not identify
health issues

*Does not identify
health issues

Choice of health issue

3 points

*Identifies a specific
health issue
*Explain why this issue

*Identifies a specific
health issue
explanation of choice

*Identifies specific
*Does not explain the

Issue is a concern

5 points

*Explains why the issue
is a concern in the
*Provides strong
support for the

*Explains why the issue
is a concern in the
*Little support for the

*Attempts to explain
why the issue is a
concern in the
*Minimal or no support
for the explanation

Technical aspects

2 points

*No APA errors
*No MUGS errors

*No more than two (2)
APA errors
*No more than two (2)
MUGS errors

*More than two (2)
APA errors
*More than two (2)
MUGS errors

Interpretation of points: Accomplished 15.00 – 13.01 points
Proficient 13.00 – 10.50 points
Needs Work Less than 10 points

MODULE 7 Informative and Persuasive Paper


The final project for NRSES 3700J is a paper of about 1500 words (approximately six [6] pages).
The paper is due in the last module of the course (Module 7). The paper has two purposes:

1. The first purpose is to inform the audience about a health issue that exists in the
country/community selected in Module 1 and reaffirmed in Module 3.

2. The second purpose is to persuade the audience that a specified intervention (or
interventions) would address the health issue in a positive way.


1. The paper is to be approximately six (6) pages in length excluding the title page and the
references cited page.

2. The chosen health issue is to be compared to a similar issue in the United States (US).
Use the following questions/topics to focus the paper.

2.1 Discuss the health issue in the selected country/community.

• What is it?
• Who is impacted?
• Why is the chosen health issue important?
• What are the consequences of not addressing the health issue?
• Identify the two (2) or three (3) social determinants of health that have the

most impact on the chosen health issue. Explain the influence.

2.2 Is the same health issue present in the US?

• Who does the health issue impact in the US?
• Compare the size of the health issue in the US with that in the selected

• What is similar about the health issue in the two countries?
• What is different about the health issue in the two countries?
• Identify the two (2) or three (3) social determinants of health that have an

impact on the chosen health issue in the US. Explain the influence of

• If the health issue does not exist in the US, explain the reasons for this
being so.

2.3 Identify an intervention (or interventions) that could address the identified health
issue. There is no specified number of interventions required, but if education is
chosen as an intervention it cannot be the only intervention.

• In what ways, if any, would the proposed interventions differ between the
selected country/community and the US?

• If the intervention in the two countries would not differ, explain why they
would not.

Module 7 Final Paper, continued

• Identify the connection between the social determinants of health, the
health issue, and the intervention(s).

• Persuade the audience that the identified intervention(s) would be useful in
addressing the chosen health issue. Again, education cannot be the only
intervention, but it can be used in combination with other interventions.

Technical Aspects of the Paper

1. DO NOT include an abstract.

2. The paper must include:

2.1 A title page formatted according to the student title page information in the APA
Manual 7th edition.

2.2 An introduction that includes a thesis statement.

2.3 The body of the paper supports the thesis organizes and fleshes out the main
ideas, and topics are sequenced so the follow o

BEFORE working on this assignment READ the Instructions for the Persuasive

Instructions for Selecting the Country or Community of Interest

You need to select a country from the list below (or US immigrant/refuge community) that will serve as the focus for the final paper.  The same country/community will provide a focus for assignments that occur prior to the final paper.  The thought is that the earlier assignments will assist to clarify aspects of the final paper.  The chosen country/community will be the focus of the following assignments: (a) NGO Business Letter, (b) SDOH Impact Analysis which includes an email to another professional, (c) Annotated Bibliography, and (d) Informative/Persuasive paper. 
The choice of a country or US immigrant/refugee community will provide the focus for several assignments in this course.   The country you choose will be the focus of the NGO Business Letter, the Email to a Healthcare Professional, and the Informative/Persuasive paper.  
1. Choose one of the following countries/communities
1. Kenya
1. Botswana
1. Ecuador
1. Peru
1. Thailand
1. Jamaica
1. Yemen
1. Paraguay
1. Sudan
1. Haiti
1. Somalia
1. A specific immigrant or refugee community within the US, e.g. immigrant children from the southern hemisphere or a Muslim group who has recently arrived in the US or non-vaccinated individuals as a population.


2. Use both the list of suggested resources found in the Instructional Materials folder and other sources to learn about the selected country, the health of the citizens and/or the healthcare issues in the selected country/community. Helpful resources are:
· Website of the World Health Organization (
· Website of the Pan American Health Organization (
· Websites that addresses immigrant populations is:

Directions for how to use this website are below the map of the US that appears on the website.
3. Write a paragraph explaining why this particular country/community was selected.  Specifically, what drew you to this country (or population)?

4. Write a paragraph specifying three (3) major health concerns or healthcare issues in the chosen country/community.  Explain why these issues are a concern in the chosen country/community. COVID is not an acceptable health issue. 

5. Choose ONE of the identified health concerns/healthcare issues to serve as a focus for the Informative and Persuasive paper.  Discuss why this issue was chosen over the others.  Make sure that your reasons are explicit.

6. The assignment will be four (4) to six (6) paragraphs in length.  Support your reasoning with two (2) peer-reviewed references and citations.  A properly formatted title page and a reference page are required.  
7.  Consult the following website if you are unsure about how to find peer-reviewed articles (

This is not a complete list of acceptable resources, but rather a means to jump start your

Resources on Countries

 BBC News. (2018). Country profiles. Retrieved from:

 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Where we work. Retrieved from:

 Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The world factbook. Retrieved from:

 Country Watch. (2018). Retrieved from:
 Encyclopedia of the Nations. (2018). Retrieved from:
 Global Edge. (2018). Global business knowledge. Michigan State University. Retrieved

 NationMaster. (2018). Compare countries on just about anything! Retrieved from:
 Pan American Health Organization. (2018). Retrieved from:
 U.S. Department of State. (2018). A-Z list of countries and other area pages. Retrieved

 United Nations. (2018). Millennium development goals and beyond 2015. Retrieved

 World Health Organization. (2018). Countries. Retrieved from:
 World Health Organization. (2018). World health report. Retrieved from:


 American Immigration Council. (2018). Fact sheet: Immigrants in Ohio. Retrieved from:

 Cap4Kids. (2015). Retrieved from:

 Centers for Disease Control (2013). Refugee Health Guidelines. Retrieved

 City of Columbus. (2018). New American Initiative. Retrieved from:

 Community Refugee & Immigration Services (CRIS) (2018). Retrieved from:

 Ethiopian Tewahedo Social Services. (2018). Retrieved from:
 Kleinman, A. & Benson, P. (2006). Anthropology in the clinics. The problem of cultural

competency and how to fix it. PLOS Medicine, 3 (10), 1673-1676
 Fazel, M., Reed. R.V, Panter-Brick, C. & Stein, A. (2012). Mental health of displaced and

refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The
Lancet, 379, 266-282. DOI:10.1016/S0140- 6736(11)60051-2

 Migration Policy Institute. (2018). Retrieved from:

 Padilla, Y.S., & Villablobos, G. (2007). Cultural responses to health among Mexican
Americans women and their families. Community Health, Supplement 1, 30(15), S24-

 Pereira, K.M., Crosnoe

Persuasive Letter

When you decide to write a persuasive letter you have:

 Identified a purpose
o Want them to believe or not believe something
o Want them to do or not do something

 Identified your audience
o Can they make decisions
o Can they deliver
o Are they well-versed in the topic/issue

 Experts?
 Leaders in the field?

 Included specific reasons
 Added specific details
 Remained polite

Cheusheva, S. (2017). Writing persuasive request letters: business letter format,
tips and samples. AbleBits. Retrieved from:

10 tips to write persuasive request letters

Below you will find 10 strategies to write your request letters in such a way that
they convince your reader to respond or act.

1. Know your addressee. Before you start composing you request letter, ask
yourself these questions. Who is my reader and how exactly can they help
me? Are they decision makers or will they just pass along my request to a
senior officer? Both the style and contents of your request letter will depend
on the reader’s position.

2. Do not be verbose. Be clear, brief and to the point. A rule of a thumb is this
– don’t use two words when one would suffice. Just remember the famous
quote by Mark Twain – “I didn’t have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a
long one instead”. A person in his position could afford that, and… he was
not requesting anything : )

3. Make your letter easy to read. When writing a request letter, don’t digress
and don’t confuse your reader by drifting off your main point. Avoid long,
crammed sentences and paragraphs because they are intimidating and hard
to digest. Use simple, declarative sentences instead and break long
sentences with commas, colons and semicolons. Start a new paragraph when
you change a thought or idea.

Here’s a very poor example of a cover letter:
“In every regard, my qualifications appear to be consistent with the desires
expressed by your advertisement and based on the voice of your company’s
blogs, I really think that I was meant to be a [Position] in your company.”

And this is a good one:
“I have good skills and experience in [Your area of expertise] and I would be
most grateful if you consider me for any suitable position.”

Remember, if your request letter looks easy to read, it has a better chance to
be read!

4. Add call to action. Put action in your request letters wherever is possible.
The easiest way is to use action verbs and the active voice rather than

5. Convince but do not demand. Do not treat your addressees as if they owe
you something. Instead, catch the reader’s attention by mentioning common
ground and emphasize the benefits of acting.

6. Do not be burdensome. Give readers all the information needed and tell
what exactly you want them to do. Simplify the job for the person to respond
– include contact information, direct phone

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