please see documents attached, the PDF is the article needed for VT4001 questions 2 and 3


1) Respond to the following in 200 words:
· Briefly describe one property crime and one violent crime.
· Identify the direct and indirect victim(s) of each crime.
· Explain the effect of the crimes on both direct and indirect victims and how their needs differ. For each crime, address the effects on two of these areas:
· Medical
· Emotional
· Physical
· Financial


2) Respond to the following in 200 words:
· Based on the case or news item that your instructor posted or that you found, describe one bias you may have in relation to the circumstances.
· Determine whether your bias falls in the category of victim blaming or is a bias toward the offender and explain why.
· Explain how media coverage of the case contributes to overall bias and the possibility of jury bias.


3) Respond to the following in 500 words:
· Describe the criminal case you selected. Then, explain how the criminal case has influenced legislation and affected the evolution of victimology.
· Explain how this legislation elevated the status of victims in the American criminal justice system.
· Explain how the case highlights the victim perspective in a way previously not considered in typical views of the crime.
· Describe the positive changes that have occurred in terms of support for victims.
· Make one recommendation to address a need that still exists to support victims in the criminal justice system. Explain how your recommendation helps.



To prepare:
· Choose one of the following theories to address.
1. Routine activity
2. Deviant place
3. Lifestyle
4. Victim participation
The Performance Task:
Address the following:
· Which victimization theory best explains the primary reason for victimization in the city, state, or nation in which you live? Why? (FLORIDA, UNITED STATES)

· How can you apply concepts from this theory to protect yourself from being victimized?
· How can law enforcement application of this theory assist with the decrease of violent victimization?
To prepare:
· Find a criminal case that aligns with at least one of the perspectives in the following theories:
1. Routine activity
2. Deviant place
3. Lifestyle
4. Victim participation
The Performance Task:
As a way to address the crime that occurred in the criminal case you found, write a proposal for a new or changed process or practice that is based on a victimization theory.
First, in 200 words:
· Explain how the applicable theory could apply to the case you found.
Next, in 500 words:
· Choose one theory of focus that applies to the case.
· Identify an existing process or practice that would benefit from a change.
· For the purpose of this assignment, consider a process or practice to be an action that can be taken at the day-to-day level, such as employing certain interview techniques, increasing patrols, improving response times, etc.
· Explain why that change would be beneficial.
· Propose the following to address the circumstances in your chosen case:
· A theory-based process or practice change that could help prevent another occurrence of the crime
· A theory-based process or practice change that could improve outcomes for the victim
· Explain how these types of change could create positive social change.

Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2017, pp. 789–807
doi: 10.1111/josi.12248

This article is part of the Special Issue “What Social Science Research Says
About Police Violence Against Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Understanding
the Antecedents and Consequences,” Kristin N. Dukes, and Kimberly B.
Kahn (Special Issue Editors). For a full listing of Special Issue papers, see:

Black Racial Stereotypes and Victim Blaming:
Implications for Media Coverage and Criminal
Proceedings in Cases of Police Violence against Racial
and Ethnic Minorities

Kristin Nicole Dukes∗
Simmons College

Sarah E. Gaither
Duke University

Posthumous stereotypical media portrayals of Michael Brown and other racial
and ethnic minority victims of police violence have sparked questions about the
influence of racial stereotypes on public opinions about their deaths and criminal
proceedings for their killers. However, few studies have empirically investigated
how the specific type of information released about a victim impacts opinions
surrounding such incidents. Participants (N = 453) read about an altercation
that resulted in a shooting death where the race of the victim and shooter (Black
vs. White) was randomly assigned. Participants learned either negative, Black
male stereotypic or positive, Black male counterstereotypic information about
the victim. Next, participants appraised levels of fault and blame, sympathy and
empathy for the victim and shooter, and indictment recommendations for the
shooter. Findings suggest that the type of information released about a victim
can significantly sway attitudes toward the victim and the shooter. Implications
for media portrayals of racial/ethnic minority victims of police violence and its
impact on criminal sentencing are discussed.

“Michael Brown, 18, due to be buried on Monday, was no angel . . . He lived in a community
that had rough patches, and he dabbled in drugs and alcohol. He had taken to rapping in
recent months, producing lyrics that were by turns contemplative and vulgar . . . ”

John Eligon, New York Times, August 24, 2014

∗Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kristin Nicole Dukes, Department
of Psychology, Simmons College, Boston, MA 02115. [e-mail:].


C© 2017 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

790 Dukes and Gaither

The above quote from a New York Times article titled “Michael Brown Spent
Last Weeks Grappling with Problem and Promise” was published just days after the
shooting death of Michael Brown. He was an 18-year-old, unarmed Black teenager
shot by Officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, MO. A similar characterization of
Brown was replayed outside of print media on television and across social media
as well. For instance, HBO talk show host Bill Maher commented, “I’m sorry, but

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