Identify the theoretical framework used in the article you chose (post the name of the theory and explain the theory).

Go to the reference section of the article and Identify/select at least one primary source and one secondary source (articles) that supports the theoretical framework (list only the reference of these articles).

Now, search the SU nursing electronic library database such as Gale-Infotract on LIRN, CINAHL, or ProQuest to identify the primary and secondary source articles you selected.
Post a brief review of the abstracts of the primary source and secondary source in the article you chose.  

Use in-text referencing and a reference list.




Exploring life history methodology in chronic illness:
a study in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis


Therese Burke
PhD Candidate, School of Nursing, The University of
Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, NSW,

Joanna Patching
RN, BA(Psych), MLitt (Psych) PhD
Associate Professor, School of Nursing, The University
of Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, NSW,

Both authors made a substantial contribution to the manuscript. Therese Burke designed the study, performed the
interviews, developed the thematic data analysis and composed the initial manuscript. Joanna Patching supervised
the study data collection and assisted with thematic data analysis, manuscript design and review.

Acknowledgement: Therese Burke was the recipient of support through an Australian Government Research
Training Program Scholarship as a PhD candidate at Notre Dame University, Australia for this research study.


Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis, chronic illness, lived experience, life history, ethnography


The aim of this study was to gain insights into the lived experience of a chronic disease, Relapsing Remitting
Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Selecting the most effective methodology to reflect the life span proved challenging.
However, the life history approach proved to be a data‑rich methodology for this study and is explored in detail in this
paper as a qualitative nursing tool.

This study recruited participants through a state based Multiple Sclerosis organisation in the community.

Thirteen participants living with RRMS were purposively recruited, ten female and three male, to discuss their lived
experience. Participants were from diverse backgrounds and were at various stages of disease progression.

Primary argument
Ethnography and life history is an under‑utilised methodology in nursing research. However, the life history
approach was used effectively to collect data to explore the life trajectory of living with a chronic illness. Semi‑
structured interviews and Braun and Clarke’s (2006) method of thematic data analysis ensured a systematic,
robust exploration of the lived experience of RRMS. The study developed eight key themes and over 70 subthemes,
providing clarity into the experience of living with RRMS.

Employing the life history approach to living with RRMS reflected the ebbs and flows of life, themes intertwining and
changing positions of importance according to life events, whether directly or indirectly related to RRMS. Life history
proved to be an effective method to gain a greater understanding of chronic illness and although often overlooked
in nursing research, may represent an excellent methodology choice for nurse researchers working in other areas of
chronic illness.


Skin-to-skin care for dying preterm newborns and their
parents – a phenomenological study from the perspective of
NICU nurses

Ingjerd G. Kymre RN, Pediatric Nurse (PN), MA, PhD (Student)1 and Terese Bondas RN, PHN, MNSc, LicNSc,

PHS, Center for Practical Knowledge, University of Nordland/UiN, Bodø, Norway and

Institute of Nursing and Health, University of

Nordland, Bodø, Norway

Scand J Caring Sci; 2013; 27: 669–676

Skin-to-skin care for dying preterm newborns and

their parents – a phenomenological study from the

perspective of NICU nurses

Background: Consequences of separation between preterm

newborns and their parents have been discussed in many

aspects, thus skin-to-skin care (SSC) has become com-

mon practice in Scandinavian Neonatal Intensive Care

Units (NICUs) since the 1980s. The International work-

shop on Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), 2009, recom-

mends implementation of continuous KMC as the gold

standard pervading all medical and nursing care, based

on empirical studies and clinical guidelines and they sug-

gest that KMC may be used during terminal care in

agreement with parents. Parents have a strong desire to

be near their child and give support and emotional com-

fort when the condition of the child requires it, and it

has been suggested that medical staff expect parents to

be with the neonates, and therefore, encourages them to

hold the neonate while it is dying. The practice of SSC at

the end of life has been under-researched, however.

Aim: The aim of this study, which is part of a larger

study on neonatal nursing care, was to describe the phe-

nomenon of how nurses enact SSC for dying preterm

newborns and their parents.

Design: A phenomenological reflective life world design.

Setting and participants: A purposive sample of 18 nurses

from three Scandinavian NICUs.

Findings: The essential meaning of the phenomenon was

expressed as strong belief in the urgency of SSC in pro-

viding mutual proximity and comfort for dying preterm

newborns and their parents. The nurses act upon this

belief and upon an engagement in securing the best pos-

sible present and future experiences of being close, in

which the SSC is understood as a necessary premise in

achieving the intended optimal conditions. The findings

are elaborated in relation to previous caring and nursing

research and phenomenology.

Conclusions: Skin-to-skin care for dying preterm newborns

and their parents is the preferred caring practice among

Scandinavian NICU nurses who consider it of major

importance to facilitate proximity and comfort through

SSC when the newborn is still alive. The authors suggest

this practical knowledge from NICU nurses perspective to

be acknowledged in discussions concerning end-of-life

care for preterm newborns and their parents and we rec-

ommend more formal establishment of this practice. Fur-

ther research is needed on parents’ experiences of skin-to

skin caring

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