1) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020383/
2) https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/fulltext/2020/08210/association_of_patterns_of_multimorbidity_with.30.aspx
3) the attached PDF is the third article.

this is all related about comorbidity and length of stay in hospitals. (age / severity of illness / various health issues)
( 3 paragraphs each article) 

Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700
Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area
Safiya Richardson, MD, MPH; Jamie S. Hirsch, MD, MA, MSB; Mangala Narasimhan, DO;
James M. Crawford, MD, PhD; Thomas McGinn, MD, MPH; Karina W. Davidson, PhD, MASc;
and the Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium

IMPORTANCE There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and
outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19
hospitalized in a US health care system.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12
hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the
Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between
March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates.

EXPOSURES Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample
among patients requiring admission.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive
mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline
comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected.

RESULTS A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range
{IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were
hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage,
30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/minute,
and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%.
Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study
end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78];
33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive
mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553
(21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151,
20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in
hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45
patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission
was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained
hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median
follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of
sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 i

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