See attached. Literature Review: Utilizing your annotated bibliography, create a brief literature review that synthesizes what you have learned from your research. Utilize library resources in addition to https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ in order to refresh yourself on creating a literature review. Your literature review should be 3-4 pages.
Saint Leo University
Senior Seminar in Criminology
This capstone course is designed to synthesize the information and insights from the other courses in the
Criminology curriculum. It includes computer-based research in crime trends and causes; a research project that
evaluates criminal justice policy-making, leadership, legal issues, administrative functions, investigative tactics,
and civic engagement; and an assessment of each senior criminology major’s knowledge level through the
administration of a nationally based criminology achievement examination.
POL 123 and CRM 220
Senior standing in Criminal Justice
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th
ed.). Washington, DC: Author. ISBN-13: 978-1-4338-0561-5
Specific objectives are:
1. Criminal justice information gathering and analysis: The student must demonstrate the ability to use
the library, to network, and to conduct computer-based research to gather sufficient information to
successfully complete a capstone criminal justice related project.
2. Project Organization and Presentation: The student must demonstrate the ability to organize and
present a coherent public administration, community service, and policy-making initiative. This
outcome connects with the Core Value of Community.
3. Core Curriculum: The student must demonstrate a mastery of the essential content of the Criminology
4. Theoretical Integration and Application: The student must demonstrate the ability to integrate
theoretical knowledge with concrete information and to apply the strategies that result to the
evaluation and presentation of criminal justice related initiatives.
Community: Saint Leo University develops hospitable Christian learning communities everywhere we serve. We
foster a spirit of belonging, unity, and interdependence based on mutual trust and respect to create socially
responsible environments that challenge all of us to listen, to learn, to change, and to serve.
Grades will be computed on the following basis:
Item Points Each
Identification of Research and Investigative
Issues and Questions 100 100 5% 5%
Annotated Bibliography 100 100 10% 10%
Literature Review 100 100 15% 15%
Discussion (8) 100 800 2% 16%
Preliminary Report – Executive Summary 100 100 24% 24%
Formal Presentation 100 100 30% 30%
The discussions involve each student responding to a question or prompt posted by the instructor no later than
Thursday 11:59 PM EST/EDT of each module. Additionally, each student will respond in a collegial manner to at
least two other classmates’ initial responses no later than Sunday 11:59 PM EST/EDT.
Identification of Research and Investigative Issues and Question
Saint Leo University
Term Project/Situational Report
Courtelaney Pass is a mid-sized municipality in the Southeastern United States. It has a
population of 80,000 residents made up of: 55% white, 38% black, and 7% Hispanic. The
primary industry is agricultural and industrial with the unemployment rate at 8.7%. By national
standards the city would be considered “blue collar” with a median household income of
$38,000. The school system remains troubled as the drop-out rate is high and, other than the
elementary schools, the middle and high schools have perpetual “D” ratings. There is a great
deal of “southern pride” evident in this community as confederate flags are frequently flown and
unfortunately, the fledgling local KKK is attempting to revitalize itself.
Two out of the five city council members are considered “good old boys” that are satisfied with
the status quo and are apathetic towards the civil unrest that has been percolating in the black
community. Within the past twelve months there have been protests in the black community that
have steadily been growing. Those residents complain that policing is biased against them and
that unnecessary and excessive force is commonplace; especially amongst young black males.
Due to recent nationwide events surrounding similar claims, the national media is paying
particular attention to Courtelaney Pass.
The police department is appropriately sized to police this jurisdiction. The chief is a 42-year-old
white male who has been with the department for twenty years working his way up the ranks.
He has no college degree but is working towards it via on-line classes. The demographics of the
agency do not mirror the community as 94% of the department is white. The only minorities in
the agency work in non-sworn support roles. The chief claims that he is attempting to attract
minority applicants but the majority of those interested cannot pass the entrance exam. He
claims that those who can pass end up going to work for the state police instead where the
salary is $12,000 per year more.
Questionable Enforcement Tactics?
There are eight major intersections in Courtelaney Pass (CP) and each is equipped with
intersection cameras. As municipalities that employ such devices share the revenue from fines
with the manufacturer, the city averages $2.1 million dollars per year in revenue from these
fines. The constitutionality of this practice is highly debated and public support is low according
to recent surveys. A local “action group” has filed a lawsuit against the city in an attempt to
remove these cameras; this lawsuit is pending a court date. A recent study conducted by a local
CP reporter indicated that per capita, the revenue generated for the city is twice as high as any
similarly situated city in the state that utilizes these cameras. The reporter also alluded to the
fact (not substantiated yet) that black residents are twice as likely as whites to b
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