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Professional Case Management

CE 2.5 ANCC Vol. 21 , No. 4 , 163 – 179 Contact Hours Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Essentials of Advocacy in Case
Management: Part 1
Ethical Underpinnings of Advocacy—Theories,
Principles, and Concepts

Hussein M. Tahan , PhD, RN

Purpose/Objectives: This article describes the meaning and underpinnings of advocacy in the field of case
management and shares essential principles and concepts for effective client advocacy.
Primary Practice Setting(s): All practice settings across the continuum of health and human services and case
managers of diverse professional backgrounds.
Findings and Conclusion: Advocacy is vital to case management practice and a primary role of the
professional case manager. It is rooted in ethical theory and principles. Successful case managers apply
advocacy at every step of the case management process and in every action they take. Part I of this 2-part
article explores the ethical theories and principles of advocacy, the perception of case management-related
professional organizations of advocacy, and types of advocacy. Part II then presents a client advocacy model
for case managers to apply in their practice, describes the role of advocacy in client engagement, and identifi es
important strategies and a set of essential competencies for effective case management advocacy.
Implications for Case Management: Acquiring foundational knowledge, skills, and competencies in what
advocacy is equips case managers with the ability and confidence to enact advocacy-related behaviors in the
provision of care to achieve desired outcomes for both the clients and health care agencies/providers alike.
Case management leaders may use the knowledge shared in this article to develop advocacy training and
competency programs for their case managers.

Key words: advocacy , advocate , case management , case manager , client advocacy , ethics

he advent of the Patient Protection and Afford-
able Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), Value-based
Purchasing (VBP), the Institute for Healthcare

Improvement’s (IHI’s) Triple Aim, and the National
Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care has
pressured health care stakeholders to focus on qual-
ity, safety, and cost of services and resources more
than ever before. These priorities may sound simple
and similar in focus. The reality, however, is that they
are complex and require the collaboration of stake-
holders from across the health care continuum, care
settings, providers, payers, employers, and, most
importantly, consumers. There is no better time than
now to focus on advocacy as an essential strategy,
embedded in case management programs. Such stra-
tegic attention to advocacy enhances the capabilities
of health care delivery systems and assists in meet-

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