instructions :
1. write 10 slides with “speaker notes 250-300 words ”
2. add photos animations ” be creative ” don’t make it boring and try to use a good format you can use any app you want ,, PowerPoint or canva 
3. the slides it self must me as it is from the book , don’t write it with your own words but the speaker notes use your own words 
4. 10 pages not including title or references page

Lexeme formation: the familiar 39

3. Some speakers will fi nd the forms in (3b) odd, and will question their acceptability, but they are all attested

in the Corpus of Contemporary American English and discussed in Bauer, Lieber, and Plag ( 2013 ).

goes on. This morpheme (an a for the verb ‘love’ and an i for the verb ‘say’)

doesn’t mean anything, but still must be added before the inflectional

ending can be attached. The root plus this extra morpheme is the stem .

Thought of another way, the stem is usually the base that is left when the

inflectional endings are removed. We will look further at roots and stems

in Chapter 6 , when we discuss inflection more fully.

3.3 Affixation

3.3.1 Word formation rules
Let’s look more carefully at words derived by affixation . Prefixes and suf-

fixes usually have special requirements for the sorts of bases they can

attach to. Some of these requirements concern the phonology (sounds) of

their bases, and others concern the semantics (meaning) of their bases –

we will return to these shortly – but the most basic requirements are often

the syntactic part of speech or category of their bases. For example, the

suffix -ness attaches freely to adjectives, as the examples in (3a) show and

sometimes to nouns (as in (3b) ), but not to verbs (3c) :

(3) a. – ness on adjectives: redness, happiness, wholeness, commonness,


b. – ness on nouns: appleness, babeness, couch-potatoness 3

c. – ness on verbs: *runness, *wiggleness, *yawnness

The prefix un- attaches to adjectives (where it means ‘not’) and to verbs

(where it means ‘reverse action’), but not to nouns:

(4) a. un – on adjectives: unhappy, uncommon, unkind, unserious

b. un- on verbs: untie, untwist, undress, unsnap

c. un- on nouns: *unchair, *unidea, *ungiraffe

We might begin to build some of the rules that native speakers of English use

for making words with -ness or un- by stating their categorial requirements:

(5) Rule for -ness (first version): Attach – ness to an adjective or to a noun.

Rule for un- (first version): Attach un- to an adjective or to a verb.

Of course, if we want to be as precise as possible about what native speak-

ers know about forming words with these affixes, we should also indicate

what category of word results from using these affixes, and what the

resulting word means. So a more complete version of our – ness and un-

rules might look like (6) :

(6) Rule for – ness (second version): – ness attaches to adjectives or nouns

‘X’ and produces nouns meaning ‘the quality of X’.

Rule for un- (second version): un- attaches to adjectives meaning ‘X’

and produces adjectives meaning ‘not X’; un – attaches to verbs

meaning ‘X’ and produces verbs meaning ‘reverse the action X’.

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