do introduction and a conclusion? And change all the citations to chigago footnotes. I put the footnotes in the works cited page but just need them to add it in the paper

Final Paper

Jannelle Marin, Emely Barrios, &
Dhillon Alamshaw

Elections and Political Participation
March 17, 2022
In the 2020 presidential election, candidates Donald Trump and Joe Biden both addressed concerns regarding the covid-19 pandemic. Their approaches to minimize the effects of covid-19 on the economy and health of the citizens of the United States differed substantially. Regardless of the policy differences each candidate advocated for, the public’s attitude towards the government’s administrative decisions to control covid-19 under the Trump administration was hypothesized to influence voter choice in the 2020 election. Similarly, voters’ ideology played a significant role in the election. Regardless of political party membership, voters who identified as liberal or moderate on the ideological spectrum were more inclined to vote for Biden. The government response to the pandemic and the Trump Administration’s response may have caused voters to vote ideologically based. It is important to understand just how influential the concerns in regards to covid-19 were for voters as well as the ideologies that each candidate demonstrated.
In the article titled, “Important issues in the 2020 election” the Pew Research Center proves the topic of the coronavirus was a very important issue to voters. In the chart, it demonstrates that in general voters are concerned with the coronavirus outbreak as “the coronavirus was marked in fourth place amongst 12 different policy issues” (Pew Research Center). The coronavirus was placed after the following issues in order of most to least important-the economy, health care and supreme court appointments. It further states in the article that, “62% of voters say the outbreak will be a very important factor in their decision about who to support in the fall” (Pew Research Center). Voter ideology also played a significant role when it came to the 2020 election. In a different study performed by the Pew Research center, about 85% of adults at the end of the political ideology spectrum, being either progressive liberals or extreme conservatives, voted in the 2020 election (Pew Research Center 2022). The information provided by the Pew Research Center demonstrates that the coronavirus and voters’ ideology are relevant and important issues that influence voter choice. In further detail, we hypothesize that liberals and moderates were more likely to vote for Joe Biden as opposed to conservative voters. Also, that there would be a correlation between public attitude and vote choice because of the proximity model of voting being influenced by salient issues that directly impact voter’s lives.
In the article titled, “Still Not Important Enough? COVID-19 Policy Views and Vote Choice” by Eric Guntermann questions whether the influence of salient issues that directly impact voter’s lifes increases voter attention. That in return enables their, “ability to vote on the basis of their policy views[and

Explaining The 2020 Presidential Election: Emotions and Voter Ideology

Entering the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election both candidates Joe Biden and Donald Trump voiced two different perspectives about how to best protect the American public’s health and safety in regards to COVID-19. In the Election candidate, Joe Biden’s campaign focused on alleviating COVID-19 induced anxiety by proposing mask mandates, encouraging social distancing, and distribution of vaccines. The American public regardless of party affiliation suffered a considerable amount of anxiety throughout this time period. I hypothesize that the increased anxiety caused by the global pandemic COVID-19 persuaded Americans who considered COVID-19 the most prominent issue in regards to public policy to vote in alliance with Joe Biden. The 2020 Election also proved that voters were more inclined to vote for the candidate that best suited their political ideology, even though ideology was held at a steady rate[footnoteRef:1][footnoteRef:2][footnoteRef:3]Using motivated reasoning and the rational choice theory, voters are inclined to participate in their best interest.[footnoteRef:4] In this election, both candidates reached a similar amount of support from their respective parties.[footnoteRef:5]We predict that the 2020 presidential election was influenced by voters’ emotional reaction to the pandemic as well as their alignment to the ideologies of their preferred candidate. [1: Sances, M.W. Ideology and Vote Choice in U.S. Mayoral Elections: Evidence from Facebook
Surveys. Polit Behav 40, 737–762 (2018). ] [2: Saad, Lydia. “Americans’ Political Ideology Held Steady in 2020.”, Gallup, 20 Nov. 2021, ] [3: Gielnik, Ruth, et al. “Behind Biden’s 2020 Victory.” Pew Research Center – U.S. Politics & Policy, Pew Research Center, 30 Sept. 2021, ] [4: Elff, Martin. “Ideology and Electoral Choice.” In The Routledge Handbook of Elections, Voting Be-
havior and Public Opinion”, edited by Justin Fisher, Edward Fieldhouse, Mark N. Franklin, Rachel
Gibson, Marta Cantijoch and Christopher Wlezien, 136-45. New York: Routledge, 2018.] [5: Gielnik, Ruth, et al. “Behind Biden’s 2020 Victory.” Pew Research Center – U.S. Politics & Policy, Pew Research Center, 30 Sept. 2021,]

ANES Variables

· (V201390): federal government response to COVID-19
· (V201200): 7pt scale liberal-conservative self-placement
· (V201233): How often trust government in Washington to do what is right [revised]
Couture, Jérôme, and Sandra Breux. “A New Tunnel Effect? the Impact of Stress on Vote Choice.” Frontiers, Frontiers, 1 Jan. 1AD,

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