Submit: Assignment 1, Media and Culture Theory ~
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After studying the assigned reading The Handbook of Communication Science, Second Edition, 

Chapter 15

: Mass Media Effects and considering one of the five categories of media effect theories mentioned in the article (learning, socialization, selective exposure, selective presentation, and perceived effects—remember, these are the categories, not the names of the theories themselves), identify one of the theories listed in the reading and answer the following questions or prompts.

Do not include the questions in the essay.

A) Does media directly influence individuals? Explain your answer
B) Which of the mass communication theories do you feel most accurately portrays your media experiences? Why? Be sure to provide an example that supports your opinion.
C) How involved should the government be in protecting us from media effects? Where do you draw the line between free speech and indecency? Is censorship ever warranted? 
Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA reference list at the end of the document.
Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching an MS Word  document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.
400 to 500 words
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Below are the required learning resources for this week.
SAGE Handbook of Media Studies: Chapter 5: Society Culture and Media


Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce: Digital Divide
The digital divide, in the simplest terms, points to an unequal distribution of resources. This article discusses key points of access to emerging technologies.


21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 62: Media Literacy
This chapter provides definitions and discusses key issues related to media literacy.


The Handbook of Communication Science, Second Edition: Chapter 15: Mass Media Effects

This article discusses the history of and theories on the impact of mass media.


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Please comment on at least  2 to 3 of your classmates’ postings with questions or thoughtful, respectful, thorough responses.
Based off of my “must have media” list, I would have to say I do not think the list reflects my personal values. I think that a lot of times media, and especially reality TV, can become very dramatic, fake, and materialistic. In my opinion, I think reality TV is entertaining, but not quite practical if you are trying to live similar lifestyles to who you are watching on those shows.  I also think that the media specifically targets certain groups of people. For example, there are plenty of shows that involve the main character dealing with eating disorders, depression, true love, a loss of a loved one, etc. Those shows or movies are targeting a specific viewer who has also gone through what the main character is going through. Most of the time, I think the media does this to get more views and to get people talking about the show or movie, which results in them getting more popularity. I believe that the digital divide is a huge problem that people face everyday. Especially when it interferes with school or jobs. When someone cannot access internet or any source of media, they are already at a disadvantage. Most of the stuff we do is all online, for example, when COVID was first interfering with our Country, a lot of schools and jobs turned to online options. When someone does not have access to these resources they are set back greatly. I cannot think of a specific example of my life that expresses media literacy, however going forward I will be more aware of what I am listening to and watching on television. I think an example of this would be to just keep an open mind about any topic at hand. It is always good to hear multiple opinions as opposed to only one. Sometimes when we stick to one source of information, we begin the lack in media literacy and become a bit close-minded. Keeping your bias to a minimum and we open to expanding your resources should allow you to understand media literacy when it is right in front of you. 


A) Does your list of “must have media” reflect your personal values? How? 

I believe that we are what we surround ourselves with. So our media choices reflect what we are seeking to fill our lives and time with. Understanding the target audience and connecting with the cultural demographics can help decrease the divide in Media fragmentation. For example, advertisements alone would not appeal to me. Still, if they are strategically placed within my must-have media choices, I would consider purchasing items that I might not have considered. Mainly social media, I do not know how often I have been scrolling on Instagram and buying something because it appealed to what I liked. 

B) Do you feel that media’s targeting of specific groups for specific content has had adverse effects on our society? Positive effects? Explain and cite examples.

“All societies have internal

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