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Research in Educational Administration & Leadership

Volume:6, Issue: 2 / June 2021

The Reopening of a School during the COVID-

19 Pandemic: An Administrative Lens

James A. Martinez
University of Tennessee, USA

Lisa R. Amick

University of Kentucky, USA

Sydney McAbee
University of Tennessee, USA



In an effort to investigate school administrator self-efficacy

during the COVID-19 pandemic, two public high school

administrators from the same high school in a Southeastern

U.S. state were interviewed virtually two times a week during

the first six weeks of the 2020-2021 school year. Selection of

participants was accomplished using convenience sampling, as

both persons completed a principal preparation program where

the lead researcher served as an instructor. The participants

were surveyed before and after the study using questions from

the Principal Self-Efficacy Survey (PSES) as well as

researcher-developed questions specifically related to work life

during the pandemic. The study revealed the degree that these

administrators defined their work experiences during this

period, based on four distinct perspectives, including: (a)

structural, (b) symbolic, (c) political, and (d) human resources.

Also, the study revealed administrator perceptions of equity

and access among various constituents at their school,

including teachers, support staff, students, parents, and

members of the broader school community. Using open

Article History:


March 11, 2021


June 14, 2021



Self-efficacy, Equity,


Research in Educational Administration & Leadership

6(2), June 2021, 515-552


systems theory as a theoretical perspective, the study revealed

six emergent themes that related to their work while opening

school during a world crisis: (a) technology access/instruction,

(b) informational/procedural ambiguity, (c) resource

dependency, (d) policy adaptability, (e) stakeholder disposition,

and (f) methods of communication. Focused on a principal and

assistant principal at a single high school, this case-study

illuminates the personal and professional challenges faced by

these administrators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite as:

Martinez, J. A., Amick, L. R., & McAbee, S. (2021). The Reopening of a

School during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Administrative Lens.

Research in Educational Administration & Leadership, 6(2), 515-552. DOI:



The importance of school administrators to address issues that

affect student health and learning in today’s schools cannot be

overstated. These issues were exacerbated during the COVID-19

pandemic, affecting the manner in which schools served students,

teachers and non-teaching staff, families and members of their local

communities. Starting in the spring of 2020, school officials

responded to

Paper—An Overview of Attendance and Participation in Online Class During the COVID Pandemic…

An Overview of Attendance and Participation in Online
Class During the COVID Pandemic: A Case Study

Duha Qutishat(*), Randa Obeidallah, Yasser Qawasmeh
Faculty of Prince Al-Hussein Bin Abdallah II For Information Technology,

The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Abstract—COVID-19 pandemic had transformed traditional learning in
schools and universities into online classrooms. Monitoring students’ attendance
and interaction during live online classes is a challenge for educators. During
the lockdown, many factors had influenced attendance and participation in online
classes. In this paper, the course Introduction to web programming lab is con-
sidered a case study to investigate the participation of students in programming
labs at Hashemite University. This descriptive and quantitative research included
212 students in the academic year (2020/2021). Students’ participation had been
observed and collected based on records of attendance sheets, in-class interac-
tion, assignment delivery, and utilization of e-learning platforms. Data were also
collected through a survey to measure student satisfaction of delivering course
learning outcomes (CLOs). Qualitative interviews were conducted to emphasize
factors that affected participation and interaction in online class; such factors
include Hardwar/Software issues, psychological/ environmental issues, and
financial issues. Findings also showed that online education was successfully
implemented. However, the interaction of students during meeting class is con-
sidered below average. Attendance and performance data were analyzed using
correlation analysis and showed a weak positive relationship.

Keywords—online-classrooms, participation, interaction, attendance,
programming lab, course learning outcome, e-learning platform, student,
e-learning, virtual learning, distance learning

1 Introduction

Online learning is divided into two main areas: learning and technology [3]. Learn-
ing is the cognitive process for achieving knowledge, and technology is the tool to
support that process. Nowadays, the digital world is continuously improving to allow
people to access internet websites, mobile applications and use different technology
tools for work, education and entertainment.

As a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, the traditional work and learning process
had shifted into the sudden usage of online platforms [26–28]. Continuous education
is needed even during catastrophic periods, and therefore, online programs are now a

iJIM ‒ Vol. 16, No. 04, 2022 103

Paper—An Overview of Attendance and Participation in Online Class During the COVID Pandemic…

requirement. Teaching and learning processes must be redesigned to adhere to social
distance norms [29]. The ed

Asian Journal of Distance Education Volume 16, Issue 1, 2021

Published by EdTechReview (ETR), New Delhi, India
ISSN 1347-9008
This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license

Identifying Parents’ Home-schooling Experience during Covid-19 Period

Funda Nayir, Tamer Sari

Abstract: The Covid-19 outbreak continues to be a vital phenomenon that no human alive has ever
experienced before and that affects all people globally in a similar way. Within the scope of Covid-19
measures, parents have played an important role after closing schools and starting home-schooling. In
this study, home-schooling experiences of parents with children in primary school during the pandemic
period were examined. A descriptive quantitative study was planned in order to determine the problems
that parents / caregivers have encountered in the period since the beginning of Covid-19. The
participants of the study were 366 parents with children in primary school between June and October
2020. Data analysis was conducted through descriptive statistics, frequency and percentage analysis.
After the data analysis, four main themes emerged: curriculum, learning at home, staying connected
and overall perspectives. It was determined that parents had difficulties, especially in curriculum,
learning at home themes and sub-themes. In terms of research findings, parents/caregivers are
expected to have as much knowledge of curriculum and pedagogy as a teacher, as well as technology
knowledge as an expert to solve technological problems.

Keywords: home-schooling, parents’ role, Covid-19, online learning, parent empowerment


What is already known about this topic:
• Although parents are one of the most important stakeholders of education, the change of

cultural, social and economic factors caused the change of educational roles of parents and
consequently, this situation prevented parents from following the current developments of

• The Covid-19 outbreak caused unexpected consequences for different groups, especially
human life and education.

What this paper contributes:
• Although the Covid-19 outbreak is examined from the perspective of educators and students,

the number of studies to determine the experiences of parents is limited. This study will provide
an understanding of the home learning process in terms of parents.

• This study represents the Turkish adapted version of the research conducted in Northern
Ireland. In this respect, this study will contribute to the literature by enabling the comparison of
two different countries from East and West.

Implications for theory, practice and/or policy:
• The important problem is that parents / caregivers are expected to have as much knowledge of

curriculum and pedagogy as a teacher and technology skills as an expert to solve technological

Paper—Factors Affecting Students’ Desire to Take Upcoming Online Courses after E-learning…

Factors Affecting Students’ Desire to Take
Upcoming Online Courses after E-learning

Experience During COVID-19

Nga Thuy Nguyen(*), Huong Thi Thu Tran
VNU University of Education, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam

Abstract—Since 2020, COVID-19 has completely changed the daily
activities of almost all nations, and education has been heavily affected. Because
of school closures, face-to-face classrooms were halted or replaced with online
classes in which both lecturers and learners had to adjust their teaching and
learning styles to cope with unexpected situations. The ‘new normal’ of learn-
ing from homes, spending hours staring at screens, and struggling with piles of
online tasks has somehow demotivated students to continue learning. This study
explores factors affecting students’ desire to take online courses after experienc-
ing e-learning during COVID-19. Nine hundred fifty-five students of Vietnam
National University took part in the survey via an online questionnaire. Data
were analyzed using SPSS 20; correlation, hierarchical regression was employed
to examine how online factors influence students’ decision. The research results
showed that skill enhancement, self-regulated learning, lecturer interaction
during the course were among the most important predictors of students’ desire to
take more online courses. In contrast, student interaction imposed no significant
influence. This study gives the theoretical background for other studies in the
same field and suggests practical implications for governments and universities
to implement online training better to cope with the pandemic.

Keywords—mobile learning, online learning, student satisfaction, interaction,
technical support, skill enhancement, COVID-19

1 Introduction

Although mobile learning has been a new phenomenon in the past few decades, its
benefits in high-quality education and learning processes are numerous. Several studies
on mobile learning have been carried out to understand better how mobile devices are
used in educational contexts [1]. Mobile learning is defined as learning that involves
using a mobile device, either alone or in conjunction with other forms of information
and communication technology, to allow students to learn at any time and anywhere [2].
This possibility shows that mobile learning could be beneficial to both students and
teachers [3]. In general, mobile learning assists students in developing technical skills,
conversing skills, finding answers, developing a sense of teamwork, allowing informa-
tion exchange, and thus maximizing their learning results [4].


Paper—Factors Affecting Students’ Desire to Take Upcoming Online Courses after E-learning…

Mobile tec

Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca / cc by-nc-nd Teri. 33, 1, en-jun, 2021, pp. 71-87

ISSN: 1130-3743 – e-ISSN: 2386-5660


Enseñanza a distancia y enseñanza ‘como’ distancia.
Una lectura crítica sobre los instrumentos
de la enseñanza online durante y después de la pandemia

Annachiara GOBBI & Federico ROVEA
Università degli Studi di Padova. Italia.;;

Fecha de recepción:15/06/2020
Fecha de aceptación: 26/08/2020
Fecha de publicación en línea: 01/11/2020

Cómo citar este artículo: Gobbi, A. & Rovea, F. (2021). Distance teaching and teaching
‘as’ distance. A critical reading of online teaching instruments during and after the
pandemic. Teoría de la Educación. Revista Interuniversitaria, 33(1), 71-87. https://doi.


This paper intends to read through a critical lens the digitalization of schooling
caused by the COVID-19 epidemic. The emergency has forced European governments
to close the schools and consequently, all the schooling activities have been transferred
online. Referring to some works of Giorgio Agamben, Paul Virilio and Walter Benjamin
the authors propose some critical remarks on the transformation of schooling space
and schooling time that characterizes the practice of distance learning. This transforma-
tion pertains not only to accidental aspects of schooling but affects the very identity
of the schooling experience. In a completely digitalized school, time is characterized
by instantaneousness: time as duration is replaced by the «time of exposure», as stated


Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca / cc by-nc-nd Teri. 33, 1, en-jun, 2021, pp. 71-87


by Paul Virilio. In addition, the school completely dematerialized, is reduced to the
two-dimensional space of the screen. The article aims to show that instantaneous
time and dematerialized space make the experience of «crossing» difficult. Therefore,
following some remarks by Jan Masschelein and Gert Biesta, it is maintained that the
experience of «crossing» endangered by the digitalization of schooling is essential to
an authentic experience of schooling. It is not intended to refuse the digital innova-
tions as such but to «put them on the table», in order to suspend their immediate use
and analyze them critically.

Key words: distance t

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