Explain the harm that occurs when crime is racialized. . Some of the research that relies on crime statistics leads to misperceptions about race and crime. What other entity contributes to these misperceptions by its unbalanced focus on violent crime? Do the racial categories currently utilized by the UCR adequately reflect the current U.S. population? Explain your answer, communicating any suggestions for change.

Extent of Crime and Victimization
Chapter 2

Extent of Crime and Victimization
How much crime is there in the United States?
What are the victimization trends in the United States?
Are there differences by race?
Where can we find answers to these questions?
How reliable and valid are crime statistics in empirical research?

Gabbidon, Race and Crime, 5e. © SAGE Publishing, 2019.


Extent of Crime and Victimization
The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the primary statistical agency in the U.S. Department of Justice
Some of the research that relies on crime statistics leads to misperceptions about race and crime
Although crime statistics were not initially designed to label certain groups of people as criminals, this is exactly what has occurred

Gabbidon, Race and Crime, 5e. © SAGE Publishing, 2019.


History of Crime and Victimization Statistics in the United States
The history of crime statistics in the United States dates back to the 19th century
Several state legislatures mandated the collection of statistics on crime and criminals.
Judicial statistics
Prison statistics
Gabbidon, Race and Crime, 5e. © SAGE Publishing, 2019.

New York (1829) and Pennsylvania (1847) required clerks of the courts to submit transcripts or statements of convictions and/or criminal business. In 1832, Massachusetts mandated that the attorney general report his work and the work of the district attorneys to the legislature. In Maine (1839), county attorneys were required to report the number of persons prosecuted and their offenses to the attorney general who also was required to submit a report to the governor. Twenty-five states legislated the collection of judicial criminal statistics between 1829 and 1905 (L. N. Robinson, 1911).

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program
In 1930, the FBI began collecting data from police departments
Seven offenses comprised the crime index:
Murder/nonnegligent manslaughter
Forcible rape
Aggravated assault
Motor vehicle theft
In 1979, arson was added
Gabbidon, Race and Crime, 5e. © SAGE Publishing, 2019.

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program, cont.
In 1980, the UCR renamed arrest race categories to include American Indian or Alaskan Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander
During the 1980s, efforts to modernize the UCR program resulted in the implementation of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
Gabbidon, Race and Crime, 5e. © SAGE Publishing, 2019.

The NIBRS has several advantages over the UCR program, although not all states participate in it. It is scheduled to replace the UCR on January 1, 2021.

Victimization Surveys
In 1972, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration implemented the NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey)
The survey includes collected information from a representative sample of households on victims of nonfatal violent and property crimes in the United States
Early surveys included approximately 100,000 persons and 5

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