Comparative Approach to Cyber Policy and Strategy

In 1000 words answer the below questions using the attached sources

1. How does the cyber policy of our competitors agree with or conflict with the way we view the role of cyber power and the state? 

2. Do you think that an international agreement outlining a set of international norms of cyber conduct is possible in the near future? 

3. What are areas of mutual interest?

4. Does Chinese or Russian society have the same demands for cyber security as the US?

STUDIA UBB. EUROPAEA, LXII, 2, 2017, 5‐15 




Melania‐Gabriela Ciot∗ 


Published Online: 2017-06-30

Published Print: 2017-06-30



The present article is trying to bring into attention the new concept of cyberization of 

IR, by argumenting the importance of cyberspace and the instruments that it provides 

for  the  scholars  and  practitioners  for  a  new  international  relations  typology.  The 

constructivist approach is used for the notion of state responsibility, for underlying the 

behavior of a state in cyberspace. The necessity of an international cyberspace policy is 

evidenced, as well as the proposed international norms for assuring the cybersecurity. 

The open international cyberspace will challenged national sovereignty and the state 

leaders will have  to  find ways of  responding  to  this  continuous and  sophisticated 

threats that appeared recently. 

Key words: cyberspace, cybersecurity, digital world,  international policy, 
world order  

1. Introduction  

The  challenge  of  the  process  of  cyberization  of  the  International 
Relations  opens  a  sophisticated  debate  that  ask  for  an  interdisciplinary 
approach. This debate will invite scholars and practitioners from different 
fields of activity to join the exploration of the relation between cyberspace 
and international relations.  

 PhD, Associated Professor, Department of European Studies and Governance, Faculty of 
European Studies, Babeș‐Bolyai University, Romania. Contact: 

Melania‐Gabriela Ciot  


The idea of this article and of coordinating this number of  journal 
Studia  Europae  under  the  topic  Cybersecurity  and  the  restructuring  of  the 
international system  came  from  the observation of  the  lack or  insufficient 
contributions in discussions and/or debates (not mentioning the research) 
from scholars and experts from academic community on the topic of the 
influences  that  cyberspace  exerts  nowadays  on  the  world  order  and  the 
impact that it will have on restructuring of the international system or on 
the  approaches  of  various  subjects  from  the  IR  field,  such  as:  decision‐
making, international policies, international politics, international security, 
peacemaking, conflict, cooperation, negotiations, diplomacy. 

Our dynamic society brought into attention new challenges for our 
daily life, as terrorism, emotional implications of decision‐making process, 
the  increasing  role  of  behavioral  international  relations,  the  threats  of 
cyber‐attacks and their increasing occurrence. We can say that we are living 
in  a  cyberworld  and  that  we  need  cyber  mechanisms  to  convert  to  this 
frame and tempo and to develop a sort of resilience to new threats coming 
from  this  new  sort  of  non‐state  actor 

Vytautas Butrimas*
The Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Lithuania**

National Security and International Policy
Challenges in a Post Stuxnet World

The international community has focused too much on addressing cybercrime and cyber hacktivist
questions. The list of usual suspects responsible for cyber incidents associated with attacks involving
the theft of intellectual property, sensitive private data, money and disruption of web services
unfortunately has grown beyond the attention seeking student hacker, cybercriminal or social
hacktivist. The public appearance of the Stuxnet family of malware designed to destroy specifically
targeted critical infrastructure components in June of 2010 gave perhaps the first indication that
States have entered cyberspace as one of the perpetrators of malicious cyber activity. The problem
of States actively preparing and executing cyber-attacks against the critical infrastructures of other
States has been largely ignored by the international community. These attacks raise national security
issues concerning threats to the economic and social well-being of States. However the pervasive
presence of cyber space as the common environment where all modern industrial processes take place
and the interrelations developed among the critical infrastructure of other States raise cross-border
security issues as well. The international community must act in order to insure that the use of this
new weapon by States will not get out of hand and be the cause of new and more serious international
conflicts. Three solutions and a possible model are proposed to manage this disruptive activity of
States in cyberspace at the international level.


Closely interwoven within the domains where human action take place
is the invisible yet pervasive domain of electromagnetic activity supported
by information and communications technologies called cyber-space. In this
environment systems and processes comprising the modern systems of finance,
energy, transportation, and telecommunications have developed based upon
the capabilities of these new dynamic technologies. These systems have grown
into complex and interrelated infrastructures and processes that are critical to
the functioning of modern societies and economies.
* Vytautas Butrimas is a Chief Advisor for Cyber Security of the Ministry of National Defence of the
Republic of Lithuania. Address for correspondence: Totorių 25/3, LT-01121 Vilnius, Lithuania,
tel. +370-5-2735775, e-mail:
** Evaluations and ideas presented in this article exclusively belong to the author and can never be consid-
ered an official position of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Lithuania or its depart-

2013-2014, Volume 12

DOI: 10.2478/lasr-2014-0001
© Vytautas Butrimas, 2014
© Military Academy of Lithuania, 2014

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Defense & Security Analysis

ISSN: 1475-1798 (Print) 1475-1801 (Online) Journal homepage:

Nuclear deterrence and cyber warfare:
coexistence or competition?

Stephen J. Cimbala

To cite this article: Stephen J. Cimbala (2017) Nuclear deterrence and cyber warfare:
coexistence or competition?, Defense & Security Analysis, 33:3, 193-208, DOI:

To link to this article:

Published online: 17 Jul 2017.

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Article views: 2638

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Nuclear deterrence and cyber warfare: coexistence or
Stephen J. Cimbala

Department of Political Science, Penn State Brandywine, Media, PA, USA

Nuclear deterrence and cyber war seem almost antithetical in
their respective intellectual pedigrees. Nuclear weapons are
unique in their ability to create mass destruction in a short
time. Information or “cyber” weapons, at least for the most part,
aim at sowing confusion or mass disruption instead of
widespread physical destruction. Nevertheless, there are some
intersections between cyber and nuclear matters, and these
have the potential to become troublesome for the future of
nuclear deterrence. For example, cyber attacks might complicate
the management of a nuclear crisis. As well, information attacks
on command-control and communications systems might lead
to a mistaken nuclear launch based on false warnings, to
erroneous interpretations of data or to panic on account of
feared information blackout. It is not inconceivable that future
nuclear strike planning will include a preliminary wave of cyber
strikes or at least a more protracted “preparation of the
battlefield” by roaming through enemy networks to plant
malware or map vulnerabilities.

Cyberwar; information
warfare; nuclear deterrence;
command-control systems;
warning systems; information
networks; crisis management;
preemption; inadvertent
nuclear war; misperception


Nuclear deterrence

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Journal of Strategic Studies

ISSN: 0140-2390 (Print) 1743-937X (Online) Journal homepage:

Japan’s Emerging Trajectory as a ‘Cyber Power’:
From Securitization to Militarization of Cyberspace

Paul Kallender & Christopher W. Hughes

To cite this article: Paul Kallender & Christopher W. Hughes (2017) Japan’s Emerging Trajectory
as a ‘Cyber Power’: From Securitization to Militarization of Cyberspace, Journal of Strategic
Studies, 40:1-2, 118-145, DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2016.1233493

To link to this article:

Published online: 26 Sep 2016.

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Citing articles: 7 View citing articles

Japan’s Emerging Trajectory as a ‘Cyber Power’:
From Securitization to Militarization of Cyberspace

Paul Kallendera and Christopher W. Hughesb

aGlobal Security Research Institutue, Keio Gijuku Daigaku, Minato-ku, Japan; bDepartment of
Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland

Japan has been overlooked as a ‘cyber power’ but it now becoming a serious
player in this new strategic domain. Japanese policy-makers have forged a
consensus to move cybersecurity to the very core of national security policy,
to create more centralized frameworks for cybersecurity, and for Japan’s
military institutions to build dynamic cyberdefense capabilities. Japan’s stance
has moved rapidly toward the securitization and now militarization of
responses to cyber challenges. Japan’s cybersecurity stance has bolstered
US–Japan alliance responses to securing all dimensions of the ‘global com-
mons’ and extended its defense perimeter to further deter but potentially raise
tensions with China.

KEYWORDS Japan; cybersecurity; China; US–Japan alliance; securitizatio

Research Article
Modelling Hegemonic Power Transition in Cyberspace

Dmitry Brizhinev, Nathan Ryan , and Roger Bradbury

National Security College, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia

Correspondence should be addressed to Roger Bradbury;

Received 14 September 2017; Revised 10 February 2018; Accepted 21 February 2018; Published 11 April 2018

Academic Editor: Carlos Gershenson

Copyright © 2018 Dmitry Brizhinev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

Cyberspace is the newest domain of conflict and cooperation between states. In cyberspace, as in all other domains, land, sea, air,
and space, these interactions often lead to the emergence of hegemons which are characterised by their predominant influence over
global world order and all other states. We examined the emergence and collapse of hegemons in a modelled cyberspace world
through the notions of power transition and power diffusion. We used Repast Simphony to construct a simple agent-based model
(ABM) of a system of states interacting both competitively and cooperatively in this world. Our simple model parsimoniously
captures the character of the real international system of states through simple parameters of wealth and power determining
the outcome of attack or cooperation amongst pairwise interacting states. We found hegemons of global world order emerged
in cyberspace as they do in the other traditional domains from models with these few parameters. And we found that hegemons,
contrary to traditional understanding, are not exceptional states but merely occupy the tail of a continuous distribution of power and
lifetimes. We also found that hegemony in the system depends on two perhaps unexpected parameters: the difficulty of acquiring
power as wealth increases and the amount of cooperation between states. And as a consequence, we argue that cyberspace, as a
power-diffuse domain where cooperation is easier than elsewhere, is less suited to the kind of hegemony we see in the traditional
domains of state interaction.

1. Introduction

Cyberspace is a power-diffuse domain when compared to
the traditional domains of warfare and statecraft, land,
sea, air, and space. Scholars have convincingly argued that
cyberspace is an offence-dominated domain with low barriers
to entry, one that diffuses power away from traditionally
powerful states and towards historically marginalised actors
[1]. Procuring information communication technology (ICT)
systems, acquiring zero-day exploits, and conducting com-
puter network operations (CNOs) are considerably cheaper
than large-scale military operations in the domains of land,
sea, air, or space. As an example, the Sony Pictures Entertain-
ment hack is a paradigmatic case of a historically margina-
lised state actor (North

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