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A Multiple Perspectives Approach Third Edition

Ian Palmer

Richard Dunford

David A. Buchanan


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Palmer, Ian, 1957-

Managing organizational change

Kodak’s Downfall
Use the assigned course textbook (as the primary source) and the article(s) attached to answer the following questions about Kodak. 
1. Who was Kodak? Include a brief history of the company. 
2. Can you describe the leadership at Kodak (Ch. 2)? 
3. What environmental pressures did Kodak face (Ch. 3)?
4. Did Kodak respond to environmental pressures (Ch. 3)? How?
5. What Internal Organizational drivers were present at Kodak (Ch. 3)?       
6. In Ch. 4 there are a number of diagnostic models. Select one of the models and apply it to Kodak. Describe step-by-step how this model would have given Kodak a competitive advantage.  
7. Assess the depth of change (Ch. 5).
8. Analyze whether Kodak’s vision and mission were not effective. Was there a relationship between Kodak’s vision, organizational change and Kodak’s failure (Ch. 6)?
9. Do not forget a strong conclusion

**I highly emphasize critical evaluation of all assigned materials. Critical analysis and evaluation allow you to develop a framework based on what you believe is truth and applicable to the topic of interest. 

I encourage you to further research this topic using valid sources (and up to date) and incorporate your research into the final submission. 

Paper requirements:

Write a 5 – 6+  page paper on how this organization could have done things differently.  
Include a cover page and reference page (these do not count towards the 5 – 6+ pages).
ORGANIZE your submission by question but 
do not include the questions. Use APA sub-headers to separate each section. 

The final submission must be written in APA format. If you are unfamiliar with APA, refer to APA Owl Purdue website or 
Every paper should have an introduction and conclusion. Your introduction should have your thesis statement that asserts your main argument. The introduction should capture your reader’s attention. Open with an interesting question, an example, or maybe even a brief story to serve as a hook to the rest of your paper.
A conclusion is your opportunity to persuade your reader of your point of view, to bring the reader back to your main argument or thesis. A conclusion demonstrates the importance of your research/analysis/ideas, it allows you to consider broader issues, make connections and elaborate on your research/analysis/ideas. 
**The proper use of grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and citation format (APA), will be a significant part of the evaluation process in all deliverables. 

JULY 15, 2016

Kodak’s Downfall
Wasn’t About
by Scott D. Anthony


Kodak’s Downfall Wasn’t
About Technology
by Scott D. Anthony
JULY 15, 2016

A generation ago, a “Kodak moment” meant something that was worth saving and savoring. Today,
the term increasingly serves as a corporate bogeyman that warns executives of the need to stand up
and respond when disruptive developments encroach on their market. Unfortunately, as time
marches on the subtleties of what actually happened to Eastman Kodak are being forgotten, leading
executives to draw the wrong conclusions from its struggles.

Given that Kodak’s core business was selling film, it is not hard to see why the last few decades
proved challenging. Cameras went digital and then disappeared into cellphones. People went from
printing pictures to sharing them online. Sure, people print nostalgic books and holiday cards, but


that volume pales in comparison to Kodak’s heyday. The company filed for bankruptcy protection in
2012, exited legacy businesses and sold off its patents before re-emerging as a sharply smaller
company in 2013. Once one of the most powerful companies in the world, today the company has a
market capitalization of less than $1 billion.

Why did this happen?

An easy explanation is myopia. Kodak was so blinded by its success that it completely missed the rise
of digital technologies. But that doesn’t square with reality. After all, the first prototype of a digital
camera was created in 1975 by Steve Sasson, an engineer working for … Kodak. The camera was as big
as a toaster, took 20 seconds to take an image, had low quality, and required complicated
connections to a television to view, but it clearly had massive disruptive potential.

Spotting something and doing something about it are very different things. So, another explanation is
that Kodak invented the technology but didn’t invest in it. Sasson himself told The New York Times
that management’s response to his digital camera was “that’s cute – but don’t tell anyone about it.” A
good line, but not completely accurate. In fact, Kodak invested billions to develop a range of digital

Doing something and doing the right thing are also different things. The next explanation is that
Kodak mismanaged its investment in digital cameras, overshooting the market by trying to match
performance of traditional film rather than embrace the simplicity of digital. That criticism perhaps
held in early iterations of Kodak’s digital cameras (the $20,000 DCS-100, for example), but Kodak
ultimately embraced simplicity, carving out a strong market position with technologies that made it
easy to move pictures from cameras to computers.

All of that is moot, the next argument goes, because the real disruption occurred when cameras
merged with phones, and people shifted from printing pictures to posting them on social media and
mobile phon

Managing Organizational Change

Scope—This article provides an overview of key considerations in planning and
implementing major organizational changes. It focuses mainly on the scope and
impact of change on business, steps to take to ensure the success of organizational
change initiatives, and how to overcome common obstacles encountered during
change. Additionally, this article highlights HR issues and challenges in handling
specific types of major organizational change.


Change management is the systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. It

involves defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to handle changes in external

conditions and the business environment. Effective change management goes beyond project management and technical

tasks undertaken to enact organizational changes and involves leading the “people side” of major change within an

organization. The primary goal of change management is to successfully implement new processes, products and business

strategies while minimizing negative outcomes.

This article discusses the management of large organizational changes that may have far-reaching impacts on the organization

and its workforce, including the following topics:

The nature and extent of organizational change.

The business case for a systematic approach to change management.

The roles of management and HR during major change initiatives.

Steps to take in managing organizational change.

How to overcome common obstacles encountered during organizational change.

Legal and global considerations in managing change.

This article also highlights some of the special issues and challenges in implementing certain types of major organizational

change, including mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, bankruptcy, business closure, outsourcing, and changes within the HR



To keep pace in a constantly evolving business world, organizations often need to implement enterprisewide changes affecting

their processes, products and people. Change is a fact of life in businesses today. It can be difficult, and people often resist it.

But to develop an agile workplace culture, organizations should follow a systematic approach to managing major change.

Organizational development experts have established approaches for successfully navigating through change.

Organizational leaders must identify and respond quickly to market changes and unexpected challenges, but most are not in a

position to create an agile culture. Yet agile leadership—from CEOs down to line-level managers—separates high-performing

from lower-performing organizations. Companies that consistently outperform competitors in profitability, market share,

revenue growth and customer satisfaction reported much greater agility than lower performers. See Don’t Just Adapt to

Change—Lead It (

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