Rephrase all the wording.
1. What was the unique way Dr. Morris combined the areas of physical activity and
Dr. Morris conducted a study on workers (large group of men who worked all day
moving people around the city of London) employed by the London transport system.
Dr. Morris assessed their physical activity rates and then related it to the risk of getting a
heart attack. Dr. Morris studied the bus drivers who were inactive all day long and the
conductors who were walking up and down the stairs of the buses taking tickets from
riders all day. (Morris et al. 1953) Physically active conductors had significantly lower
rates of coronary heart disease than the drivers. If conductors did develop the
disease, it was less severe and occurred at later ages. Dr. Morris promoted
physical activity and health, not just exercise for performance.
Dr. Morris also found that postmen delivering the mail on foot had similarly lower
CHD rates than sedentary postal clerks and telephonists. Analysing national
death rates in an early test of their hypothesis, the Morris team found gradient
levels of CHD with occupations of intermediate physical activity.
Dr. Morris chose middle aged civil servants free of clinical CHD who held
sedentary desk jobs and traced them over time for CHD occurrence and death.
Contrary to expectation, no benefit in lower heart attack incidence was found
from high totals of leisure time physical activity. Instead, men engaging in
vigorous exercise (for example, running at about 6 mph) did manifest less than
half the disease of their fellow workers, who were comparable in health status
and health habits. (Paffenbarger, R. S., 2000)
2. What is the exercise/heart hypothesis?
Exercise/ heart hypothesis protects against coronary heart disease. People who
exercised more frequently had healthier, better functioning circulatory systems than
those who did not exercise. This physiological benefit resulted in a lower risk of death
from heart disease among those who were more active. Nowaday, in primary
prevention, regular physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular disease.
Exercise has an effect on cardiovascular improvement in lean and overweight
normoglycemic subjects. In a 1-year study in non-obese individuals, without dietary
intervention, a 16-20% increase in energy expenditure (any form of exercise) resulted in
a 22.3% reduction in body fat mass, LDL cholesterol , total cholesterol/high-density
lipoprotein lowering ratio, and C-reactive protein concentration, all risk factors
associated with CVD.(Fontana L, 2007)
Exercise induces adaptations in several cell types and tissues throughout the body.
Exercise increases mitochondrial biosynthesis in adipocytes, skeletal muscle myocytes,
and cardiomyocytes, thereby increasing aerobic respiration within these tissues. In
addition, exercise improves systemic oxygen delivery through vasodilation and
angiogenesis, preventing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, exercise leads
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