The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires federal agencies to assess the environmental effects of their proposed actions, such as building and remodeling federal buildings, airports, and road construction; assessing federal land management modifications; and making decisions on permit applications, before making decisions or implementing the project. The NEPA must be completed before beginning construction or conducting changes to federal lands. The NEPA is a federal law designed to protect the environment.
One job of an environmental consultant is to assist in the development of an ecological investigation and environmental impact statement (EIS), which is a large portion of the NEPA. By completing this assignment, you will better understand the challenges of an environmental consultant in completing an ecological investigation and an EIS.
Locate two articles in the CSU Online Library, one article referring to an ecological investigation (such as point and nonpoint pollution, ecological risk assessment, or surface water and soil remediation) and one article relating to an EIS.
Provide a one-page analysis for each article. Your analysis should include the following information:
Ecological investigation article:
Summarize the author’s main arguments.
Describe where the project is proposed, and outline what the project included in the NEPA.
Summarize the needs and objectives of the project.
Describe the steps involved or conducted in the ecological investigation.
What is your opinion of the article? How could you apply what you have learned in this article on the job?
EIS article:
Summarize the author’s main arguments.
Summarize the prescribed steps involved in the EIS.
Describe the outcome of the plan.
Did the source trigger a NEPA violation? Describe and summarize the violation. (Note: if it did not trigger a violation, skip this bullet).
Summarize any planned restoration steps.
What is your opinion of the article? How could you apply what you have learned in this article on the job?
Each of your analyses should be one page each (for a total of two pages) and should be submitted in the same document. Be sure to use in-text citations, and include your full references at the end of your critique. You must include an introduction to your analyses and adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary.


Int Environ Agreements (2021) 21:517–530

1 3


Cost of groundwater protection: major groundwater basin
protection zones in Poland

Ewa Krogulec1  · Jacek Gurwin2 · Mirosław Wąsik2

Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published online: 22 February 2021
© The Author(s) 2021

This paper describes the complex hydrogeological, legal framework and socioeconomic
costs of the groundwater protection in major groundwater basins (MGBs) in Poland in
accordance with European directives. The hydrogeological criteria developed in Poland for
establishing MGBs and the principles of their protection provide more details to the direc-
tives that are in force in Europe, which define the general principles for groundwater pro-
tection. The procedure of establishing MGB protection zones is connected with a change in
local plans and land development and requires an analysis of the cost–benefit relationship
in the sphere of social economy in the sector of public economics. The cost assessment was
performed on the basis of data from hydrogeological documentations, and the aggrega-
tion of subareas to which the same existing and planned development can be attributed. A
legal analysis of bans, orders and restrictions together with the identification of the risk of
claims in specific hydrogeological and development conditions was a fundamental issue of
research. These costs depend on the acreage and land use of the protected area. The unit
costs of MGB protection, calculated per 1 km2 of the protection area, for six sample basins
were estimated at €120 to €208,000/2  years/1  km2. The highest costs are generated by
establishing protection in urban areas, while the lowest costs are generated in forest areas.

Keywords Major groundwater basin · Groundwater management · Cost of protection ·
Legal application · Groundwater protection zone · Poland

1 Introduction

The current total amount of disposable groundwater resources in Poland (according
to the condition as of December 31, 2016) is approximately 37 million  m3/day ((https
:// ia-psh/8862-groun dwate r-resou rces-in-polan d.html).
Ground water is more useful for supply and less vulnerable to pollution than surface
water, and it constitutes about 70% of the total water consumption in Poland. It was

* Ewa Krogulec

1 Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
2 Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Wroclaw, Cybulskiego

30, 50-205 Wroclaw, Poland

518 E. Krogulec et al.

1 3

estimated the total dis

Benchmarking the effectiveness of mitigation measures
to the quality of environmental impact statements:
lessons and insights from mines along the Great
Dyke of Zimbabwe

Patrick Gwimbi1 • Godwell Nhamo2

Received: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2015 / Published online: 19 April 2015
� Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Abstract The environmental impact statement (EIS) plays an important role in informing
decision makers about the likely impacts of development projects on the environment and

suggesting mitigation measures for addressing such impacts. Increased effort to improve

the quality of EIS has been a focus on its proposed mitigation measures and their likely

effectiveness. There is, however, a lack of such studies in Zimbabwe’s mining industry.

Following a conceptual framework of EIS quality as an indicator of mitigation effec-

tiveness, this paper assesses the quality of EIS and its likely influence on the effectiveness

of its proposed mitigation measures. Twenty-two purposively sampled EISs for mines

operating along the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe were reviewed using the modified Lee and

Colley (Review of the quality of environmental statements, Manchester EIA Centre,

University of Manchester, Manchester 1992) quality review package and Mitchell’s (EA

the Magazine of IEA and EARA 28–29, 1997) mitigation hierarchy guidelines. Results

show that 77 % of the EISs are of satisfactory quality, while 51 % of the proposed

mitigation measures focus on adverse impact reduction. The deficiencies are traced to

vagueness in the regulations regarding baseline data collection and analysis and concep-

tualization of mitigation. Based on the results, it is suggested that more efforts should be

aimed at reviewing the EIA regulations in order to improve the quality of EISs.

Keywords Environmental impact statement � Review area � Environmental impact
assessment � Mining � Great Dyke � Effectiveness � Mitigation � Zimbabwe

& Patrick Gwimbi

Godwell Nhamo

Department of Environmental Health, National University of Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho

Institute for Corporate Citizenship, University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria, South Africa


Environ Dev Sustain (2016) 18:527–546
DOI 10.1007/s10668-015-9663-9

1 Introduction

The quality of environmental impact statement (EIS) is often used as a major indicator of

environmental impact assessment (EIA) effectiveness (Morrison-Saunders et al. 2001;

Sadler 1996). As a technical document, the EIS provides mitigation measures which ad-

dress adverse impacts of project development activities and enhance the quality of human

health through its influence on decision making (Glasson et al. 2005; Canelas et al. 2005;

Evans 2013). The evaluation of EIS is therefore very impo

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