Answer questions about accounting theory and merchandising accounting.
A legal firm’s operations are different than Ford or GM operations. Lawyers provide a service whereas Ford is a manufacturing business that needs to maintain an inventory of various parts used in their vehicles. Each requires its own accounting approach.
We now delve into accounting theory in greater depth. Now that you have learned some accounting procedures, you are better able to relate these theoretical concepts to accounting practice. Accounting theory is a set of basic concepts, assumptions, and related principles that explain and guide the accountant’s actions in identifying, measuring, and communicating financial information.
Your study of accounting began with service companies as examples because they are the least complicated type of business. You are now ready to apply the accounting process to a more complex business type: a merchandising company. This type of company is represented by manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers.
This assessment focuses on accounting assumptions, concepts, principles, modifying conventions, objectives, qualitative characteristics, accounting policies, and the income statements for service and merchandising organizations. It requires knowledge of the following:
The effects of accounting assumptions on the accounting process.
The effects of accounting concepts on the accounting process.
How generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) affect financial reporting.
The impact of modifying conventions on the accounting process.
How accounting objectives, qualitative characteristics, and policies affect financial reporting.
The differences and similarities between income statements for service and merchandising organizations.
The methods used to determine the amount of merchandise inventory on hand.
How to use the gross margin percentage as a tool for financial analysis.
Complete the Assessment 4 Template [DOCX].
Review all suggested readings.
Note: Accuracy in accounting is paramount so take your time and double-check your work for errors or omissions.
Answer questions correctly. When you are satisfied with your responses, save and submit your template in the classroom.
Step 1: Discuss the effects of the five major accounting assumptions on the accounting process.
Step 2: Describe the five concepts’ impact on the accounting process.
Step 3: Describe the five major accounting principles.
Step 4: Describe the impact on the accounting process of the three modifying conventions.
Step 5: Identify the accounting procedures of Principles, Assumptions, Concepts.
Step 6: Complete the equations of merchandising accounting.
Step 7: Describe the two methods used to determine merchandise inventory.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
Competency 1: Define accounting terminology and its application to accounting principles.
Describe the five major accounting principles.
Identify the accounting procedures of Principles, Assumptions, Concepts.
Competency 2: Apply accounting cycle strategies to manage business financial events.
Discuss the effects of the five major accounting assumptions on the accounting process.
Describe the five concepts’ impact on the accounting process.
Describe the impact on the accounting process of the three modifying conventions.
Complete the equations of merchandising accounting.
Describe the two methods used to determine merchandise inventory.
Competency 4: Convey purpose, in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards.
Convey clear meaning through appropriate word choice and usage.
Remove or Replace: Header Is Not Doc Title
Assessment 4 Template
Accounting Theory & Merchandising Accounting
Respond to the following seven questions using grammatically correct language. Save the document and submit it in the courseroom.
1. Discuss the effects of all five major accounting assumptions on the accounting process.
2. Describe all five concepts’ impact on the accounting process.
3. GAAP set forth standards or methods for presenting financial accounting information. Describe all five major accounting principles.
4. In certain instances, companies do not strictly apply accounting principles because of modifying conventions or constraints. Identify and describe the impact on the accounting process of the three modifying conventions.
5. Correctly state the letter or letters of the principle(s), assumption(s), or concept(s) used to justify the accounting procedure followed for at least four of the accounting procedures. These procedures are all correct.
▪ Principle(s), Assumption(s), Concept(s):
A. Business entity.
C. Earning principle of revenue recognition.
D. Going concern (continuity).
E. Exchange-price (cost) principle.
F. Matching principle.
G. Period cost (or principle of immediate recognition of expense).
H. Realization principle.
I. Stable dollar assumption.
▪ Accounting Procedures:
1. Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market value.
2. A truck purchased in January was reported at 80 percent of its cost even though its market value at year-end was only 70 percent of its cost.
3. The collection of $40,000 of cash for services to be performed next year was reported as a current liability.
4. The president’s salary was treated as an expense of the year even though he spent most of his time planning the next two years’ activities.
5. No entry was made to record the company’s receipt of an offer of $800,000 for land carried in its accounts at $435,000.
6. A supply of printed stationery, checks, and invoices with a cost of $8,500 was treated as a current asset at year-end even though it had no value to others.
7. A tract of land acquired for $180,000 was recorded at that price even though it was appraised at $230,000, and the company would have been willing to pay that amount.
8. The company paid and charged to expense the $4,200 paid to Craig Nelson for rent of a truck owned by him. Craig Nelson is the sole stockholder of the company.
1) Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market value. (C)
6. In each of the following equations supply the missing term(s):
· Net sales = Gross sales – (______________________ + Sales returns and allowances).
· Cost of goods sold = Beginning inventory + Net cost of purchases – ________ ________.
· Gross margin = ________ ________ – Cost of goods sold.
· Income from operations = __________ _________ – Operating expenses.
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