Read and respond in at least 200 words to at least two of your classmates’ postings, as well as any follow-up instructor questions directed at you, by the end of the workshop. Include citations to at least one credible information source in your replies.

Attached are the posts, review and provide feedback/reply individually. 

1. Original Post by Catherine Johnson

Cryptographic Methods:
Cryptography is the science of concealing information or encrypting information. Computers use complex cryptographic algorithms to enable data protection, data hiding, integrity checks, nonrepudiation services, policy enforcement, key management, and exchange, and many more (Conklin, 2018). Cryptography is classified into three types symmetric cryptography, asymmetric cryptography, and hash functions

Symmetric cryptography is also known as secret-key cryptography. It uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt data making it the simplest type of cryptography. A plain text with the key produces the same cipher similarly, the ciphertext with the key produces the plain text. “Symmetric encryption is useful for protecting data between parties with an established shared key and is also frequently used to store confidential data” (Burnett & Foster, 2004). This type of cryptography is suited for bulk encryption as it is fast and easy.

Asymmetric cryptography is also known as public-key cryptography. In this method, two keys are used to encrypt data. One for encoding and the other for decoding. One of the two keys stays private while the other is shared. The algorithms are based on integer factorization and discrete logarithmic problems. This encryption method is used for authentication and confidentiality. 
The hash function is a special mathematical function. It performs a one-way function, which means that once the algorithm is processed, there is no feasible way to use the ciphertext to retrieve the plaintext that was used to generate it (Conklin, 2018). Hashes provide confidentiality but not integrity because even though we cannot determine the original text, we can ascertain the modified text. These are utilized in programs, text messages, and operating systems files. 

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI):
It is an infrastructure that enables users to communicate securely. PKI uses the asymmetric method; one private key and one public key. The public key can only decrypt the file encrypted by the private key, which affirms the receiver and the sender’s information is secure during a transaction. The challenges PKI face is the storage and protection of the keys. The encryption keys can be stolen or unrecoverable based on the measures taken to store them. Additionally, failure to issue and renew certificates can cause large-scale connectivity issues.

Physical Security:
Physical security needs to be maintained to prevent attackers from gaining access to steal data. Physical security is essential in an organization to prevent unauthorized individuals from causing harm to the business. If systems and devices are physically accessed, all files, data, information, and networks can be compromised. Granting limited access to employees to computer rooms or server rooms can prevent theft and help with intentional and unintentional damages. Perimeter security is also important, especially for sites and

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